Programming in a bilingual environment, which language to use?

If, like me, you are working in an environment where English is not the main language you have encountered the problem of which natural language to use when programming. This is often an issue amongst bilingual teams.

There are three possibilities:

  • You can have all the code in English
  • All in the “native” language (French, Spanish, German, …)
  • Or in a mix of both

I have had work experience with all three situations and debated the issue with various people. After these experiences I have come to the conclusion that for traditional line of business software development the best approach is a mix of both languages.

If you are writing line of business software and the intended users work in another language than English you should use the user’s language for all business domain terms.

Otherwise you will have to translate these terms. Sometimes there will be no existing translation or it will be unknown to most of the users themselves. The developers will use these translated terms on a daily basis while working with the code.

You’ll have a situation where the developers and the users do not use the same vocabulary. Things will eventually get lost in translation, people will need to do constant mental mapping when talking amongst themselves and users will be puzzled when developers use a translation they have never heard of.

One of the common arguments against mixing two languages is the inconsistency it often breeds. Sometimes a word is written in English, later the same word is written in the other language. This creates confusion when people try to search through the solution to find something. This is a frequent problem and it needs to be addressed.

The best way to address it is to have clear guidelines about which words should be in English and which words in the other language.

I have found that what works best is having everything but the words of the problem domain (domain model, business domain, or whatever you call it) in English. This works well because it avoids problem areas like pronouns and prepositions. Two types of words that are susceptible from going either way.

It also keeps all of the software terms in English. Since most literature (online or offline) is in English, developers will appreciate using familiar and searchable terms.

Of course if you are working with other people and your only common language is English or you intend to put your code on the internet (ie: GitHub). You should write all of the code in English.

The same situation applies if your users are English speakers.

Likewise if you are writing code yourself for a personal project you can do as you please and in these case I always write everything in English.

Pros and cons of various choices

All in english
Pros: consistency, more people can understand the code, allows for the use of the more common English terms to represent software concepts

if your clients or users use business domain terms in another language you will be faced with translation problems

All in the other language
Pros: consistency, business domain terms are in the language of the users, may be easier for developers who do not have a firm grasp of English

Cons: software terms (ie: Load, Save, Factory, Adapter, Proxy) need to be translated, programming language keywords are in English which makes it impossible to use a single language throughout the source code

A mix of both languages
Pros: the best of both worlds, software terms in English, business terms in the other language, reading the source code allows to easily distinguish between business and software concerns

Cons: often leads to inconsistency when not everyone applies the same rules all of the time

3 thoughts on “Programming in a bilingual environment, which language to use?

  1. One thing that I personally hate about code in french even with a mix of both languages are the plurals conventions. When you have more that one nouns for a variable name the readability of putting the ‘s’ in the middle is ratter confusing.


    public IEnumerable ReportConfigurations {get;set;}

    in a mix of both world it becomes:
    public IEnumerable ConfigurationsRapport {get;set;}

    But still I agree with you a mix of both language is my favorite way to code in a bilingual environment.

    1. That’s a very good observation and a particular problem I didn’t think of when writing this post.

      I would argue tough that report and configuration could be considered software terms rather than business domain terms and thus could be in written all in English.

      This just goes to show however that this is always a tricky and confusing subject. Because there is a lot of room for interpretation, maintaining a standard amongst developers or even oneself is tricky at best.

      EDIT: Anyway the problem with pluralization still remains.

  2. The English language has a natural richness over being used in IT. For the other language we need, as you just implied, a clear set a naming rules must be set and used the team.

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